Leaky Bitch – Incontinence in female dogs

This is a great topic for understanding clinical decision-making. Not a headliner like brain tumours, but perfect as a simple example of balancing consideration of costs, convenience, and risk, when choosing the treatment for a common problem which, if not controlled, may demand rehoming or even euthanasia. About 1 in 10 of female dogs develop incontinence, anywhere from months to years after their desexing surgery.


Many diseases can be treated a number of ways: with surgery, or with several drugs that vary in price, effectiveness, and risk of side effect.  Deciding which drug is sometimes difficult for both prescriber and pet owner. If there’s only one drug available, side effects are mild, and the disease is life-threatening, the choice can be easy.

The more options there are, and the more serious the potential side effects, the harder it becomes to decide what’s best.  Cost and ease of administration can also be big issues for pet owners, especially for diseases like incontinence where treatment may be daily, for life. Possible hidden side-effects, when drugs are given in the long-term, also raise justifiable  concerns for many.

Incontinence is a topic that sees continual conversation in vet forums, as colleagues try to reconcile these issues. Weighing the pros and cons of each option can be swayed by the information we receive, and how well we cope with risk.

Cause and symptoms

Loss of oestrogen, once ovaries are removed during desexing, results in decreased pelvic nerve and muscle function and hence loss of urinary control.  About 10% of neutered bitches will suffer incontinence; slightly higher for larger breeds, and lower for smaller breeds.

Symptoms range from bed wetting to more constant dribbling; sometimes persistent, others intermittent. The impact on enjoyment of pet ownership can can vary from none, for outdoor dogs, to profound, for those with severely incontinent dogs, living entirely indoors on carpet.

Early onset incontinence (age 2-8) can often be identified as ‘hormonal’ with confidence. In older dogs, incontinence can be secondary to diseases of thirst, and arriving at the vet clinic with jar of urine, ready for analysis, will get your answer quicker. See Liquid Gold: save time & money with urine.


These are commonly used alone, but sometimes in combination for stubborn cases.

  • Oestrogenic compounds (Incurin®, Stibestrol/DES)

Could be considered a type of replacement therapy, giving a hormone lost when ovaries were removed,  and therefore looked-upon as addressing the root cause of the problem. These agents are old-school hormones or analogues that are off-patent, and cheap to manufacture.

They usually require an initial higher dose, with tabletting daily, tapering to several times weekly, and sometimes as infrequently as fortnightly. This can make treatment very cheap and easy. Annual cost for a 20kg dog could be as low as $50.

Any oestrogen has the potential to stimulate growth of certain tumours, most commonly breast, or suppress blood cell production in the bone marrow.  These side effects sound catastrophic, especially when treating a non-life threatening problem, and can easily be used by vets and drug manufacturers to guide pet owners towards more expensive alternatives.

In reality, the doses prescribed for incontinence have not been reported  to cause bone marrow problems.   While there are several other sex hormones used in dogs, which do have well-recognised effects on the development of breast cancer and even diabetes, oestrogens, at anti-incontinence doses, don’t appear to be one of them.

Admittedly,  hormones have many and diverse effects in the body, especially in the long term; far more so than  drugs which act on neuromuscular function, described below.   Without large-scale population studies of bitches on treatment it is impossible to say with mathematical certainly, but there isn’t even anecdotal reports or discussion amongst colleagues, implicating oestrogens in any sinister causal role. Progestigens, like megestrol acetate, are a very different matter, and those looking for hazardous use of hormones in pets should fix their gaze in this direction.

Comparison with the recently identified increase in breast tumours in post-menopausal women receiving HRT oestrogens seems superficially valid, although the hormonal life-story of a woman, with pregnancy, breast-feeding and contraceptive pills, is so much more complex than the ovarectomised bitch.  Interestingly, in women, late puberty coupled with early childbirth significantly reduces breast cancer risk, while in the bitch, a similar reduction in risk can be achieved by desexing before their first heat.

If you’re concerned about breast cancer, focus more on the timing of the spey than theoretic side effects this medication.

Cost: …….. Cheap as
Ease: ………A pill weekly to fortnightly
Efficacy: ….83% response rate
Risk: ……….Very Low


  • Alpha-adrenergic agents (Propalin®/PPA, Sudafed®/pseudoephidrine)

These are drugs that act on nerve receptors in the ‘valve’ of the bladder neck, stimulating it to contract and maintain continence. Compared to the hormones described above, they are very short-acting and need to be given 1 to 3 times daily. As soon as treatment stops, incontinence returns.  Syrup formulations can be added to food to make administration easier, but they are most effective when given on a empty stomach.  Side effects are uncommon and, like the drug, short-lived. They may include nervousness, insomnia, tremour: not ideal for the anxious or highly strung.

These drugs were freely available at chemists as nasal decongestants (Sudafed®), and slimming tablets (Slim-rite®), until their use in elicit drug manufacture saw a clamp-down on over-the-counter availability. Now marketed as a prescription vet product, Propalin Syrup®, treating a 20kg dog may cost around $250-500 per year, depending on dose. Hence the  financial incentive for vets and drug manufacturers to overstate the risks of inexpensive hormonal drugs and move patients on to these alpha-adrenergic agents.

Cost: …….. Relatively expensive
Ease: ………Dosing several times daily
Efficacy: ….90% response rate
Risk: ……….Very Low


  • Acupuncture and chiropractic

Treatments are available. Sourcing information regarding frequency of treatments and efficacy.

  • Traditional Chinese and herbal remedies

Interestingly, some of these remedies may contain natural chemicals that act on adrenergic receptors or as phyto-oestrogens, and hence behave like the man-made drugs above.

  • Lifestyle

The cheapest, drug-free option for incontinence is lifestyle change, as owners of outdoor dogs may not even notice their pet’s incontinence.  Eviction from the house, or restricting access to tiled areas alone, may make the medical problem a non-issue. Many owners can’t cope with the welfare impact of this option; the forlorn looks, from behind glass door, too much to bear.

  • Surgery

There are surgical treatments rarely recommended for incontinence, poorly responsive to pharmaceuticals.  This should be considered as a separate issue, and involve your primary veterinarian and possibly a surgical specialist, as they are costly, invasive, and outcomes are variable.


  • Unless your mother’s death from breast cancer has left a permanent emotional scar, or you can’t cope with risk’s of 1 in the 10’s of thousands, I’d try the hormonal option first. If your bitch responds well, and only low doses are required, it’s safe, easy and cheap.
  • If you don’t like tampering with hormonal systems unnecessarily, you have a chilled-out or relaxed dog, and not phased by the cost, try the alpha-adrenergic agents.
  • If you like natural remedies, get a referral to practitioners who specialise in acupuncture or traditional Chinese medicine.

WARNING: Other diseases of the urinary tract

It’s important to emphasise this conversation is not relevant to other types of incontinence associated with

  • Congenital malformations of the urinary tract, usually in dogs under 6 months of age;
  • Inflammatory lower urinary tract disease (infections, bladder stones) which usually have associated  painful or frequent urination, and malodorous or bloody urine;
  • Spinal diseases, such as slipped discs, tumours and fractured vertebrae, which can damage the nerves supplying the bladder.
  • Polydipsia (increased thirst). These often need to be investigated and treated differently to ‘hormonal incontinence’, although some of these treatments may be used as adjunct to other specific therapies. See Liquid Gold: save time & money with urine.

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55 Responses to “Leaky Bitch – Incontinence in female dogs”

  1. BronwynEvans says:

    I have an 11 yr 3 mths and she has started from intermittent bed and floor wetting but has started to wet at least once a night when I let in for couple of hrs…When home from work…one night she was chasing a treat ball and just weed in front of me…she was spade 4 years agoand she did occasionallydid but then they all went outside as couldn’t cope with behavior..lol….re homed some that had gone to homes or been taken and then later returned months later..lol..but decided that still couldn’t handle intermittent incontinence and bowel occasionally..would hormonal help her..Now getting more frequent….I myself have taken and my mother died of breast cancer..I couldn’ttake the sweating…lol..etc…

  2. Debbie says:

    Hiya, I was hoping to adopt a 3 yr old crossbreed from a local rescue centre, when I went to see her they told me she was incontinent and on Incurin tablets. She had only been handed over the previous week and her former owner had described her as house trained. Does the Incurin ‘cure’ the incontinence if taken every day?

    I already have a little boy (3 yrs old) rescue dog and was hoping to get him a companion.

    Many thanks in advance for any replies/advice x

  3. Katrine says:

    Our female (now 14) dachshund began having frequent accidents about 3 years ago. We had her on Chinese herbs which improved this issue, but only slightly. We’re now seeking a better solution. We tried Resources Incontinence – did not work. We tried hormones – did not work. She’s now been on Proin for one week and her accidents have actually increased. Any advice?

  4. ann says:

    we have a 14 year old dog who was wetting himself and took him to the vet yesterday and got the med proin and last night he vomited and was foaming at the mouth we tryed to call our vet today but he was closed so not gonna give him the meds any more till we see the vet and see what he says

  5. Kell says:

    A bit late to reply to the woman looking to adopt the girl with incontinence issues, but here is my reply anyway 🙂 Our girl (also a rescue) developed bad incontinence about 2 years after her spaying, going from a little leaking when she got excited to near constant leaking, especially when laying down, all over the course of about a month. We took her to the vet and they put her on the oestrogen replacement treatment (Stibestrol), and she was leak free within a few days. The recommended dosage was 1 tablet daily for 5 days then dropping down to twice weekly tablets. We found, after 3 months, we could drop down to once weekly and she does well. We’ve tried a few times to stop giving them to her, but she starts having accidents again, so looks like she will be a lifer on these tablets. They certainly do the trick for her.

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